When you start to look at me a physical fatality
A traffic collision , also called a motor vehicle collision MVC among other terms , occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian , animal , road debris , or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building. Traffic collisions often result in injury, disability, death, and property damage as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved. A number of factors contribute to the risk of collisions, including vehicle design , speed of operation, road design , road environment, driving skills, impairment due to alcohol or drugs , and behavior, notably distracted driving, speeding and street racing. In , 54 million people worldwide sustained injuries from traffic collisions.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: HALSEY Heaven in Hiding - traduzione in italiano
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Center for Problem-Oriented Policing
A traffic collision , also called a motor vehicle collision MVC among other terms , occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian , animal , road debris , or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Traffic collisions often result in injury, disability, death, and property damage as well as financial costs to both society and the individuals involved. A number of factors contribute to the risk of collisions, including vehicle design , speed of operation, road design , road environment, driving skills, impairment due to alcohol or drugs , and behavior, notably distracted driving, speeding and street racing. In , 54 million people worldwide sustained injuries from traffic collisions.
While the death rate in Africa is the highest Traffic collisions can be classified by general types. Types of collision include head-on , road departure , rear-end , side collisions , and rollovers. Many different terms are commonly used to describe vehicle collisions. The World Health Organization uses the term road traffic injury ,  while the U. Some organizations have begun to avoid the term "accident", instead preferring terms such as "collision", "crash" or "incident".
Historically, in the United States, the use of terms other than "accidents" had been criticized for holding back safety improvements, based on the idea that a culture of blame may discourage the involved parties from fully disclosing the facts, and thus frustrate attempts to address the real root causes.
A number of physical injuries can commonly result from the blunt force trauma caused by a collision, ranging from bruising and contusions to catastrophic physical injury e.
Following collisions, long-lasting psychological trauma may occur. In some cases, the psychological trauma may affect individuals' life can cause difficulty to go to work, attend school, or perform family responsibilities. A study by K. Vehicle and road modifications are generally more effective than behavioral change efforts with the exception of certain laws such as required use of seat belts, motorcycle helmets and graduated licensing of teenagers.
Human factors in vehicle collisions include anything related to drivers and other road users that may contribute to a collision. Examples include driver behavior, visual and auditory acuity, decision-making ability, and reaction speed. Drivers distracted by mobile devices had nearly four times greater risk of crashing their cars than those who were not. Nearly all drivers who had been in a crash did not believe themselves to be at fault. Although proficiency in these skills is taught and tested as part of the driving exam, a "good" driver can still be at a high risk of crashing because:.
Confidence feeds itself and grows unchecked until something happens — a near-miss or an accident. An Axa survey concluded Irish drivers are very safety-conscious relative to other European drivers. However, this does not translate to significantly lower crash rates in Ireland. Accompanying changes to road designs have been wide-scale adoptions of rules of the road alongside law enforcement policies that included drink-driving laws, setting of speed limits, and speed enforcement systems such as speed cameras.
Some countries' driving tests have been expanded to test a new driver's behavior during emergencies, and their hazard perception. There are demographic differences in crash rates. For example, although young people tend to have good reaction times, disproportionately more young male drivers feature in collisions,  with researchers observing that many exhibit behaviors and attitudes to risk that can place them in more hazardous situations than other road users. Older drivers with slower reactions might be expected to be involved in more collisions, but this has not been the case as they tend to drive less and, apparently, more cautiously.
In Leeming warned that there is a balance to be struck when "improving" the safety of a road: . Conversely, a location that does not look dangerous may have a high crash frequency. This is, in part, because if drivers perceive a location as hazardous, they take more care. Collisions may be more likely to happen when hazardous road or traffic conditions are not obvious at a glance, or where the conditions are too complicated for the limited human machine to perceive and react in the time and distance available.
High incidence of crashes is not indicative of high injury risk. Crashes are common in areas of high vehicle congestion, but fatal crashes occur disproportionately on rural roads at night when traffic is relatively light.
This phenomenon has been observed in risk compensation research, where the predicted reductions in collision rates have not occurred after legislative or technical changes. One study observed that the introduction of improved brakes resulted in more aggressive driving,  and another argued that compulsory seat belt laws have not been accompanied by a clearly attributed fall in overall fatalities.
In the s, Hans Monderman 's studies of driver behavior led him to the realization that signs and regulations had an adverse effect on a driver's ability to interact safely with other road users. Monderman developed shared space principles, rooted in the principles of the woonerven of the s. He concluded that the removal of highway clutter, while allowing drivers and other road users to mingle with equal priority, could help drivers recognize environmental clues.
They relied on their cognitive skills alone, reducing traffic speeds radically and resulting in lower levels of road casualties and lower levels of congestion. Some crashes are intended; staged crashes , for example, involve at least one party who hopes to crash a vehicle in order to submit lucrative claims to an insurance company.
Jose Luis Lopez Perez, a staged crash driver, died after one such maneuver, leading to an investigation that uncovered the increasing frequency of this type of crash.
The U. Department of Transportation's Federal Highway Administration review research on traffic speed in A common cause of collisions is driving faster than one can stop within their field of vision. Driver impairment describes factors that prevent the driver from driving at their normal level of skill. Common impairments include:. Insurance statistics demonstrate a notably higher incidence of collisions and fatalities among drivers aged in their teens or early twenties, with insurance rates reflecting this data.
These drivers have the highest incidence of both collisions and fatalities among all driver age groups, a fact that was observed well before the advent of mobile phones. Females in this age group exhibit somewhat lower collision and fatality rates than males but still register well above the median for drivers of all ages. Also within this group, the highest collision incidence rate occurs within the first year of licensed driving.
For this reason, many US states have enacted a zero-tolerance policy wherein receiving a moving violation within the first six months to one year of obtaining a license results in automatic license suspension. Old age , with some jurisdictions requiring driver retesting for reaction speed and eyesight after a certain age.
Various factors such as fatigue or sleep deprivation might increase the risk, or numbers of hours driving might increase the risk of an accident. Including some prescription drugs , over the counter drugs notably antihistamines , opioids and muscarinic antagonists , and illegal drugs. Research suggests that the driver's attention is affected by distracting sounds such as conversations and operating a mobile phone while driving.
Many jurisdictions now restrict or outlaw the use of some types of phone within the car. Recent research conducted by British scientists suggests that music can also have an effect; classical music is considered to be calming, yet too much could relax the driver to a condition of distraction. On the other hand, hard rock may encourage the driver to step on the acceleration pedal, thus creating a potentially dangerous situation on the road.
Cell phone use is an increasingly significant problem on the roads and as the U. National Safety Council compiled more than 30 studies postulating that hands-free is not a safer option, because the brain remains distracted by the conversation and cannot focus solely on the task of driving. Some traffic collisions are caused intentionally by a driver. For example, a collision may be caused by a driver who intends to commit suicide.
Thus, there are situations when a person may be impaired, but still legally allowed to drive, and becomes a potential hazard to themselves and other road users. Pedestrians or cyclists are affected in the same way and can similarly jeopardize themselves or others when on the road. Most of these crashes also involved a human factor.
In these circumstances, it is frequently the driver who is blamed rather than the road; those reporting the collisions have a tendency to overlook the human factors involved, such as the subtleties of design and maintenance that a driver could fail to observe or inadequately compensate for. Research has shown that careful design and maintenance, with well-designed intersections, road surfaces, visibility and traffic control devices, can result in significant improvements in collision rates.
Individual roads also have widely differing performance in the event of an impact. In Europe, there are now EuroRAP tests that indicate how "self-explaining" and forgiving a particular road and its roadside would be in the event of a major incident. Research has shown that, across all collision types, it is less likely that seat belts were worn in collisions involving death or serious injury, rather than light injury; wearing a seat belt reduces the risk of death by about 45 percent.
Several important driving behaviors were observed on the road before and after the belt use law was enforced in Newfoundland, and in Nova Scotia during the same period without a law. Belt use increased from 16 percent to 77 percent in Newfoundland and remained virtually unchanged in Nova Scotia. Four driver behaviors speed, stopping at intersections when the control light was amber, turning left in front of oncoming traffic, and gaps in following distance were measured at various sites before and after the law.
Changes in these behaviors in Newfoundland were similar to those in Nova Scotia, except that drivers in Newfoundland drove slower on expressways after the law, contrary to the risk compensation theory. A well-designed and well-maintained vehicle, with good brakes, tires and well-adjusted suspension will be more controllable in an emergency and thus be better equipped to avoid collisions. The design of vehicles has also evolved to improve protection after collision, both for vehicle occupants and for those outside of the vehicle.
Much of this work was led by automotive industry competition and technological innovation, leading to measures such as Saab 's safety cage and reinforced roof pillars of , Ford's Lifeguard safety package, and Saab and Volvo 's introduction of standard fit seatbelts in Other initiatives were accelerated as a reaction to consumer pressure, after publications such as Ralph Nader 's book Unsafe at Any Speed accused motor manufacturers of indifference towards safety.
In the early s, British Leyland started an intensive programme of vehicle safety research, producing a number of prototype experimental safety vehicles demonstrating various innovations for occupant and pedestrian protection such as air bags , anti-lock brakes , impact-absorbing side-panels, front and rear head restraints, run-flat tires, smooth and deformable front-ends, impact-absorbing bumpers, and retractable headlamps.
Common features designed to improve safety include thicker pillars, safety glass, interiors with no sharp edges, stronger bodies , other active or passive safety features, and smooth exteriors to reduce the consequences of an impact with pedestrians. The UK Department for Transport publish road casualty statistics for each type of collision and vehicle through its Road Casualties Great Britain report.
Some crash types tend to have more serious consequences. Rollovers have become more common in recent years, perhaps due to increased popularity of taller SUVs , people carriers , and minivans , which have a higher center of gravity than standard passenger cars.
After retrofitting these systems to its models in —, Mercedes saw its models involved in fewer crashes. Motorcyclists have little protection other than their clothing and helmets. This difference is reflected in the casualty statistics, where they are more than twice as likely to suffer severely after a collision. In , there were , road crashes with , reported casualties on roads in Great Britain.
This included 3, deaths 1. Studies in United States have shown that poor people have a greater risk of dying in a car crash than people who are well-off. Similar studies in France or Israel have shown the same results. A large body of knowledge has been amassed on how to prevent car crashes, and reduce the severity of those that do occur.
In the first high level ministerial conference on road safety was held in Moscow. Collisions migration refers to a situation where action to reduce road traffic collisions in one place may result in those collisions resurfacing elsewhere. The immediate result may be to reduce collisions at the bend, but the subconscious relaxation on leaving the "dangerous" bend may cause drivers to act with fractionally less care on the rest of the road, resulting in an increase in collisions elsewhere on the road, and no overall improvement over the area.
In the same way, increasing familiarity with the treated area will often result in a reduction over time to the previous level of care regression to the mean and may result in faster speeds around the bend due to perceived increased safety risk compensation. In 50 million more were injured in motor vehicle collisions.
In , between 1.
Will the UK really have the highest coronavirus death toll in Europe, as a US study suggests?
A mathematician who studies the spread of disease explains some of the figures that keep popping up in coronavirus news. By James Gorman. His goal is to design better ways to control outbreaks. In it he talks about the math of contagion involving not only physical diseases, but also ideas, rumors and even financial crises.
When two rookie cops are killed in a fiery crash near Richmond, Virginia, crime reporter Nichelle Clarke is sent in to investigate. People and evidence soon begin to disappear. Someone is one step ahead of her. A master criminal with a deadly secret, covering their tracks with ruthless efficiency. The killer will stop at nothing to keep the truth hidden.
The Coronavirus, by the Numbers
Rule in a minute animations now in 13 languages. Please click here for high resolution files of the icons. Note that you will be asked to agree to not change these icons nor the associated Life-Saving Rules text in any way before being able to download these files. Introduction to the Life-Saving Rules slide pack for organisations to adapt to their needs. It should be used to introduce leaders to the Life-Saving Rules program and what it is expected of them as leaders. If you are interested in a particular language, do let us know. Download excel file of all currently available translations:. Visit our YouTube channel for the Rule-in-a-minute animations, which are available in:. The Introduction presentation has also been translated to Azeri — download here. View from our YouTube Channel.
YOUR mortality with COVID for dummies
T he numbers seem catastrophic, overwhelming, beyond a magnitude that the human mind or heart can grasp: What do 60, — or even , — deaths look like? Those are roughly the lower and upper limits of projected fatalities in the U. Last month, when the lower estimate was ,, the White House recommended nationwide countermeasures. Those started with a ban on gatherings and quickly escalated to closing schools and businesses, advising people to wear face masks , and reminding them to stay physically apart. This week, when the lower estimate from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation dropped to 60, , reflecting how well those measures are working, it stoked optimism that the epidemic might soon end with less loss of life.
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They all have similar numbers. Now keep in mind, these numbers are likely going to do down once we understand the number of asymptomatic cases. I know yesterday I referenced an article where these numbers may be under representing death as well. But, if I had to guess right now, the case fatality rate will drop.
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