You need not a man to teach you
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It is familiarly quoted using the King James Version translation:. The verse is widely used to oppose women from being trained and ordained as clergy , and from women holding certain other positions of ministry and leadership in large segments of Christianity. Those segments include Roman Catholics , the Southern Baptist Convention , and other particularly conservative evangelical Protestants.
Among Roman Catholics, only men may receive the sacrament of Holy Orders to become clergy deacons , priests , and bishops , though non- liturgical leadership roles are often available to both religious and lay women.
Most conservative evangelical churches are complementarian in theology and practices. Some deny women a vote in church affairs since they would be participating in making decisions applicable to the men of the church. They also often deny women the right to serve as teachers of mixed adult Bible classes or as missionaries, generally disenfranchising them from the duties and privileges of church leadership. Christian egalitarians maintain that there should be no institutional distinctions between men and women.
The United Methodist Church was at the forefront of the ordination of women as pastors. In , the General Conference of the Methodist Church approved full clergy rights for women.
In the past two decades, most Protestant denominations and their seminaries have begun accepting women pastors.
The traditional view is that the "I suffer not a woman…" words are Paul's own words. However, some modern scholars believe on the basis of content, vocabulary, and literary style that 1 Timothy , as well as between two and five other Pauline letters see Authorship of the Pauline epistles , were not written by Paul but are pseudepigraphical.
Their research leads them to conclude that Paul was addressing a particular problem localized in the Church at Ephesus where Timothy was pastor of the multicultural congregation. The book presents the Kroegers' well-documented research which sheds new perspectives to this difficult biblical text.
They present considerable evidence concerning newly discovered issues and problems Paul was addressing. They argue that the verse must be interpreted in light of careful exegesis of Greek word usage, the Greco-Roman customs and laws of the day, and the outside influences on the Christian churches of the 1st Century. The Kroegers' maintain that gnosticism was taking hold of the Christians at Ephesus , and the women, being given less-to-no education in those days, were more prone to be misled by gnostic beliefs.
Those authors present the case that those women with gnostic influence were trying to pass on those erroneous beliefs to others in the Church at Ephesus. It is the word authentein which is ordinarily translated "to usurp authority". Therefore, since there is no "control text" to determine its meaning, no one knows for sure what the word means and exactly what Paul is forbidding.
Interpretation of this passage is almost universally considered to be complex. The 1 Timothy passage is only one "side" of a letter written by Paul, and is directed at a particular group. Therefore, interpretations are limited to one-sided information with no record of the associated correspondence to which Paul was responding. Wheaton scholar and professor Gilbert Bilezikian concludes that although it may seem that Paul is laying down an ordinance that has the character of a universal norm for all Christians in all ages, that view does not survive close scrutiny.
After extensive research, he has reached these conclusions:. Bilezikian concludes that the exceptional character of the emergency measures advocated by Paul serves as evidence that women could indeed teach and hold leadership positions under normal circumstances.
Egalitarian and complementarian interpretive approaches to the text typically take the following forms:. Christian Egalitarians believe that the passage does not carry the same meaning for the modern church when interpreted in light of the socio-cultural situation of Paul's time; that a key word in the passage should be reinterpreted to mean something other than "exercising authority". Some recent scholarship is believed to show that Paul never intended his first letter to Timothy to apply to the church at all times and places.
Instead, it was intended to remediate a state of acute crisis being created by a "massive influx of false teaching and cultic intrusions" threatening the survival of the very young Church at Ephesus.
The egalitarian socio-cultural position has been represented prominently by classicist Catherine Kroeger and theologian Richard Kroeger. The Kroegers maintain that Paul was uniquely addressing the Ephesian situation because of its feminist religious culture where women had usurped religious authority over men. They cite a wide range of primary sources to support their case that the Ephesian women were teaching a particular Gnostic notion concerning Eve.
They advocate that ancient Greco-Roman world thought patterns faced by the writer of the Pastoral Epistles are germane to interpreting his writings. However, their conclusions have been rejected by certain historians  as well as by some complementarians. Marshall cautions that "It is precarious, as Edwin Yamauchi and others have shown, to assume Gnostic backgrounds for New Testament books.
It does seem anachronistic to transliterate and capitalize it 'Gnosis' as the Kroegers do. They thus explain v. However, this explanation cannot be substantiated except from later Gnostic writings ". According to Thomas Schreiner , "The full-fledged Gnosticism of later church history did not exist in the first century 21 AD. An incipient form of Gnosticism was present, but Schmithals makes the error of reading later Gnosticism into the first century documents.
They call the heresy 'proto-Gnostic', but in fact they often appeal to later sources to define the false teaching v. External evidence can only be admitted if it can be shown that the religious or philosophical movement was contemporary with the New Testament".
Holmes' opinion is that "As a classicist Both have been discredited". Many contemporary advocates of Christian Egalitarianism do find considerable value in the Kroegers' research.
She writes that in extra-biblical literature—the only other places it can be found, the word is ordinarily translated "to bear rule" or "to usurp authority". Yet, a study of other Greek literary sources reveals that it did not ordinarily have this meaning until the third or fourth century, well after the time of the New Testament.
Prior to and during Paul's time, the rare uses of the word included references to murder, suicide, "one who slays with his own hand", and "self-murderer". Moeris , in the second century, advised his students to use another word, autodikein , as it was less coarse than authentein. The Byzantine Thomas Magister reiterates the warning against using the term, calling it "objectionable". John Chrysostom , in his Commentary on I Timothy 5. Concluding that the author of 1 Timothy was addressing a specific situation that was a serious threat to the infant, fragile church, an article entitled "1 Timothy Anti-Gnostic Measures against Women"  the author writes that the "tragedy is that these verses were extensively used in later tradition to justify contemporary prejudices against women.
They were supposed to prove from the inspired Scriptures that God subjected women to men and that women are more susceptible to temptation and deception". Trombley and Newport agree that the Kroegers rightly indicate that authenteo had meanings connected with sex acts and murder in extra-biblical literature. They find it consistent with the historical context of the first letter to Timothy, at the church in Ephesus—home to the goddess Diana 's shrine where worship involved ritual sex and sacrifice.
Social Worker Bob Edwards examines this issue from a psychological and sociological perspective. His work focuses on the impact of cultural norms on gender schemata, and subsequently the impact of gender schemata on church tradition as well as biblical translation and interpretation. Specifically, Edwards highlights the patriarchal norms that are evident in the writings of St. Augustine of Hippo. Augustine's views on women were consistent with sexist norms found in the culture of Rome in the 4th century.
Augustine's work—and worldview—on the institutional norms of the church is highlighted by a number of authors. Through psychological processes such as socialization , confirmation bias and belief perseverance, perception may exclude historical, cultural and literary context that contradicts patriarchal norms.
In Kroeger asserted the meaning of the word was "to engage in fertility practices",  but this was not universally accepted by scholars, complementarian or egalitarian. While they have provided significant background data, their suggestion that the phrase "to have authority" authentein , authentein should be rendered "to represent herself as originator of man" is, to say the least, far-fetched and has gained little support".
Egalitarians Aida Spencer and Wheaton New Testament scholar Gilbert Bilezikian have argued that the prohibition on women speaking in the congregation was only intended to be a temporary response to women who were teaching error. He writes that the word translated "authority" in that passage is a hapax , a word that appears only once within the structure of the Bible and never cross-referenced again. He says one should "never build a doctrine on or draw a teaching from an unclear or debated hapax".
Therefore, since there is no "control text" to determine its meaning, Bilezikian asserts that no one knows for sure what the word means and what exactly Paul is forbidding. He adds that there is "so much clear non-hapaxic material available in the Bible that we do not need to press into service difficult texts that are better left aside when not understood.
We are accountable only for that which we can understand". Spencer notes that rather than using the imperative mood or even an aorist or future indicative to express that prohibition, Paul quite significantly utilizes a present indicative, perhaps best rendered "But I am not presently allowing".
Spencer believes this is a temporary prohibition that is based solely on the regrettable similarity between the Ephesian women and Eve—in that the women of Ephesus had been deceived and as such, if allowed to teach, would be in danger of promoting false doctrine. Spencer's argument has been criticized by complementarian authors and at least one egalitarian writer.
Barron points out that defenders of the traditional view have argued that Paul's blanket statement, "I do not permit a woman to teach", sounds universal. He asks if what Paul really meant was "I do not permit a woman to teach error", and that he would have no objection to women teaching once they got their doctrine straight, why did he not say that?
Gorden Fee, an egalitarian scholar, also has difficulty with Spencer's hermeneutical points. Fee says that despite protests to the contrary, Paul states the "rule" itself absolutely—without any form of qualification. Therefore, he finds it difficult to interpret this as meaning anything else than all forms of speaking out in churches. Although he proposes an updated scenario in his version of Beyond Sex Roles , Gilbert Bilezikian in his version proposed that Paul may have been distinguishing between qualified, trained teachers and some of the unschooled women who struggled to assert themselves as teachers with their newly found freedom in Christianity.
Barron  and Gordon Fee. Women in Ephesus should first become learners, v. The first is that the lexical history of this word is long and complex. A perplexing issue for all is the meaning of authentein. Over the course of its history this verb and its associated noun have had a wide semantic range, including some bizarre meanings, such as committing suicide, murdering one's parents, and being sexually aggressive.
Some studies have been marred by a selective and improper use of the evidence. The standard lexical reference work for classical Greek, the Liddell Scott Greek Lexicon has the following entry for the verb authentein :.
Joannes Laurentius Lydus Lyd. Then the following related entry for the noun authentes :. Dieterich, Leipzig ]; condemned by Phrynichus Attistica. Mitteis, Griechische Urkunden der Papyrussammlung zu Leipzig, vol. The issue is compounded by the fact that this word is found only once in the New Testament, and is not common in immediately proximate Greek literature.
Nevertheless, English Bible translations over the years have been generally in agreement when rendering the word. Elizabeth A.
McCabe has identified and documented evidence of gender-bias in English translations of the Bible. This does not apply exclusively to the word authentein.
Greek words indicating that women held positions of authority in the church also appear to have been altered in translation. Women identified in Greek manuscripts as a diakonos deacon or prostatis leader , are referred to as servants in some English translations, like the King James Version.
The Holy Spirit Will Teach You
Satan tries to deceive people into thinking that the Bible is too hard for the average person to understand. He wants you to become dependent on others to interpret it for you. But beloved, the Holy Spirit will teach you all things; just trust Him to lead you, and He will show you where to look for the answers you need.
A great book! Deals very directly with the doctrine that is being preached in the church that is not always consistant with the Bible. Would recommend this book to others. Account Options Sign in.
1 Timothy 2:12
Come to me ,.. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me ;.. Mat However when the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all truth. John But the Comforter, who is the Holy Spirit and whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things. John Text in Light Blue or bold Light Blue can be "clicked" for backup in scripture or detail in writings. When you have clicked to the on-line Bible, you can change and update to see any Bible version that you prefer. Jesus Wants to Teach You Himself 2.
1 John 2:27
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The Holy Spirit Will Teach You
It is familiarly quoted using the King James Version translation:. The verse is widely used to oppose women from being trained and ordained as clergy , and from women holding certain other positions of ministry and leadership in large segments of Christianity. Those segments include Roman Catholics , the Southern Baptist Convention , and other particularly conservative evangelical Protestants. Among Roman Catholics, only men may receive the sacrament of Holy Orders to become clergy deacons , priests , and bishops , though non- liturgical leadership roles are often available to both religious and lay women.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: I WILL TEACH YOU TO BE RICH (BY RAMIT SETHI)